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(previously known as nail)
is a mail user agent for Unix systems.
Derived from Berkeley Mail 8.1.
An interface like the original Berkeley one
is still optionally available.
Is a free implementation of the System V mailx command
and features an interface like that by default.
Is intended to comply to the mailx command specifications
of IEEE Std 1003.2-1992 (POSIX.2)
IEEE Std 1003.1-2004
with XSI extensions (SUSv3).
Supports the MIME specifications.
Mailx can send and receive attachments
and code and decode international character strings.
If the system libraries provide appropriate support,
conversion between different character encodings is performed.
In combination with a UTF-8 terminal,
nearly all international languages are supported.
External converter programs can be automatically invoked
e. g. to view messages in HTML format.
In combination with either
IMAPS can also be used.
can be stored and managed
on remote servers.
This is particularly useful for people
who use more than one computer
to access their mail.
Of course, it is also possible to use IMAP
just for fetching mails and storing them locally.
and disconnected operation of IMAP folders.
This speeds up operation while in online mode.
It also makes it possible to transparently view and edit IMAP mailboxes
without an active connection to the server.
Supports POP3 to read messages on a remote server.
In combination with OpenSSL
POP3S can also be used.
Mailx can read and delete individual messages,
thus POP3 accounts can almost be accessed
like local mail folders.
Supports SMTP to send messages directly to a remote server.
A local sendmail interface setup is thus not necessary.
In combination with OpenSSL
both the STARTTLS method and SMTPS can be used.
SMTP AUTH is also supported.
Supports S/MIME for signed and encrypted email
(in combination with OpenSSL
In combination with
certificates for S/MIME and SSL/TLS
can be shared with Mozilla applications,
and can be managed using them.
Can display message threads
and supports operations on them.
This is especially useful for handling mailing lists.
It is also possible to sort messages
by various other criteria.
Provides a Bayesian junk mail filter
mostly according to Paul Graham's article
“Better Bayesian Filtering”.
Chained tokens according to Jonathan A. Zdziarski's
“Advanced Language Classification using Chained Tokens”
can optionally be used.
Features a lot of detail improvements
over previous implementations of Mail/mailx,
such as IMAP-style search methods and flags for any types of folders,
killing and scoring of messages,
maildir folder support,
an option to set the From: address directly,
and the generation of References: header fields
to avoid annoyances on mailing lists.
Can be used as a mail batch language
in nearly the same way as it is used interactively.
So it is possible to use mailx
as a mailbox filter,
for fetching mails,
or for sending files as attachments.
Is extensively described in its manual page
which provides both introductory material
and complete reference documentation.
For installation instructions, see the README.
The ChangeLog keeps track of modifications.
Mailx development is discussed on the nail-devel mailing list.
All people interested in discussing or coding features for future
releases are invited to participate.
Bug reports should also be sent to the list.
To subscribe to the list or look at the archives,
Currently, only subscribers are allowed to post.
Browse the CVS repository.
Download the source code
$ cvs -d:pserver:firstname.lastname@example.org:/cvsroot/nail login
CVS password:<just type return>
$ cvs -d:pserver:email@example.com:/cvsroot/nail co nail
to retrieve a copy.
for more information.
If you want to report a problem,
please look at the
to see if it has already been resolved,
and if so, try if the fix works for you.
On the history of
mail, Mail, mailx, and nail
The tale of “aux.c”